OPTION PRICING BASED ON THE CONCEPT OF INSURANCE: MARKET MODELSFREE METHODS THAT GIVE AS SPECIAL CASE THE BLACKSCHOLES OPTION PRICING.
STATISTICAL RISK IN THE MARKETS. THE LAWS OF GROWTH, CYCLES , DEMANDSUPPLY, INEQUALITIES.
A popularized, scientific investors risk management research with a) new nonMarshalian demandsupply laws, b) new pricevolumes cyclic patterns and c) market behavior due to the economic inequalities d) best speculative (vanila) options strategy e) backoffice risk management systems, in the capital and interbank markets.
Friday, December 18, 2020
69. OPTION PRICING BASED ON THE CONCEPT OF INSURANCE: MARKET MODELSFREE METHODS THAT GIVE AS SPECIAL CASE THE BLACKSCHOLES OPTION PRICING.
Tuesday, May 9, 2017
68. THE 4 GREAT SIMPLE PRINCIPLES OF LONG TERM SUCCESSFUL TRADING (with margin)
ANYONE WHO WILL TRY TO MAKE MONEY SOLELY BY TRADING AND SUCH SYSTEMS OF TRANSACTIONS SHOULD BE AWARE THAT THERE IS A VERY POWERFUL AND ALMOST UNBEATABLE COLLECTIVE WILL SO AS NOT TO SUCCEED! NOONE WANTS PEOPLE TO QUITE THEIR JOBS AND MAKE MONEY THIS WAY AS IT IS SOMEHOW PARASITIC. IT IS IN SOME SENSE UNETHICAL AS A PRACTICE ENFORCEABLE TO THE MAJORITY. AND OF COURSE NEITHER THOSE WHO HAVE LARGE CAPITAL WANT THAT A MAJORITY WILL MAKE MONEY THIS WAY, AS THEY WOULD PREFER THAT THEY WORK IN THEIR COMPANIES FOR THEM. ONLY IN SPECIAL CONTINGENCIES AND SITUATIONS SOMETHING LIKE THIS WOULD BE ETHICAL. AND IN PARTICULAR A HIGHER MORALITY THAT WOULD SUPPORT SUCH A PRACTICE, WOULD BE PROVABLE WITH COLLECTIVELY BENEVOLENT DEEDS FROM A POSSIBLE SURPLUS OF SUCH MONEY!
There is a story that an artist, a painter, was praying to the God with the next words.
There is a story that an artist, a painter, was praying to the God with the next words.
"Dear God, please help me for a greatly inspired artwork. Let me take care of the large quantity of efforts, and many paintings , but please you take care of the quality in at least a few of my paintings".
This is related with another saying which goes like this "More than 80% of the results in a project come from less than 20% of the efforts and work!"
A trader may try and experiment with trading for many years some times more than one decade, and he may lose a lot of money till he learns what to avoid and how to gain systematically. His attempts for gain must be a journey towards financial freedom. A financial freedom that strictly speaking all should have the right to it e.g. through a guaranteed subsidy and income for survival. But only very few countries provide such a subsidy, as a basic human right, like e.g. the right to have public health insurance.
A trader also should try to make wealth only till the media of the Pareto or lognormal distribution of the wealth in society. Because until that level he is in right and contributes to lessening of the economic inequality that makes the society to suffer. making wealth above the median is of reverse morality, and contributes to increasing the increase of the economic inequalities.
After more than 20 years of studying the markets, from the point of view both the scientist and the investor and also after investing and trading, I concluded that there are 4 divine simple principles for the successful and safe trading. These 4 principles are based on sound statistical valid verification, for more than half of century of the behavior of the capital markets. I state them and I comment more about them
THE VALID AND COLLECTIVELY ACCEPTED SCIENTIFIC STATISTICAL METHODS GIVE A COLLECTIVELY SUPPORTED NONBETRAYING AND SUSTAINABLE WAY OF BELIEVING, THINKING FEELING AND ACTING, IN OTHER WORDS A VALID AND NONBETRAYING CREATIVE PATH, SO THAT NO MATTER WHAT THE MARKET DOES AND HOW IT BEHAVES , WE ALWAYS HAVE A VALID WAY TO INTERACT AND RESPOND TO IT WITHOUT INVALIDATING OUR PRACTICE AND SO AS TO SUCCEED IN THE LONG RUN IN THE REQUIRED GOALS.
THE VALID AND COLLECTIVELY ACCEPTED SCIENTIFIC STATISTICAL METHODS GIVE A COLLECTIVELY SUPPORTED NONBETRAYING AND SUSTAINABLE WAY OF BELIEVING, THINKING FEELING AND ACTING, IN OTHER WORDS A VALID AND NONBETRAYING CREATIVE PATH, SO THAT NO MATTER WHAT THE MARKET DOES AND HOW IT BEHAVES , WE ALWAYS HAVE A VALID WAY TO INTERACT AND RESPOND TO IT WITHOUT INVALIDATING OUR PRACTICE AND SO AS TO SUCCEED IN THE LONG RUN IN THE REQUIRED GOALS.
PRINCIPLE 1.
PERMANENT CONSTANT GROWTH
The indexes of securities have a constant longterm (many decades) growth. This is also the basic assumption of the portfolio theory of the Nobel prize winner H. Markowitz. Measurements of index securities along some decades definitely prove the existence of this permanent growth, which is, after all, an artificial growth of the index rather than a particular enterprise of a security. The alignment with the collective optimism of the growth of the totallity of enterprises is a basic social metaphiscal knowhow for the succesful trading.
( From 1950 to 2000, for the American stock indices we discover the next statistics:
1) There are 12 periods of 3.7 years, that the index grows more than 100%
2) There are 11 periods of about 9 months (continuation pattern or standing wave of 3 months half period) that the index goes does about 25%30%.)
( From 1950 to 2000, for the American stock indices we discover the next statistics:
1) There are 12 periods of 3.7 years, that the index grows more than 100%
2) There are 11 periods of about 9 months (continuation pattern or standing wave of 3 months half period) that the index goes does about 25%30%.)
PRINCIPLE 2.
EXISTENCE OF CYCLES MODULATING TO NONMARHALLIAN DEMANDSUPPLY COUPLING..
It is crucial to realize that such cycles may emerge in the price changes , in a random way with a hazard rate of appearance at each period , and furthermore that they may appear not directly on the prices changes but on the rate of growth of prices.We must make clear here that we are not talking of exact periodicity but rather for randomly emerging temporary periodicity. And the most predictable effect modulated by such cycles is the reaction to an superexponential moves (a blowup at the end of trend in the form of superexponential move or terminal spike). (See e.g. https://www.ted.com/talks/didier_sornette_how_we_can_predict_the_next_financial_crisis and http://www.er.ethz.ch/ Such superexponential terminal patterns of trend may occur usually as result of overgrowth of the one of the two populations in a demandsupply coupling rather that of domination and not so much of competition or cooperation. See also post 22. For the case of stock indexes, the predator is the fear and population of sellers, while the prey is the optimism and population of buyers. The frequency of emergence and the size of such superexponential blowups follows the law of inequalities in other words the pareto or Lognormal distribution and is thus by far more often than pure randomness would predict! ). The indexes of securities have a statistical periodicity of 12 days, , 1 month (accounting period and publication of statistical data) with subcycle of 10 days with half period moves of 5 days, seasonal (3 months, that financial statements are published) 5,5 years, 11.2 and 22.2 years ( business cycle of the Nobel prize winner S. Kuznets, but also the 22.2 solar cycle of the climate and its effect on the growth in ecology and nature). Careful spectral analysis also proves this fact. Such cycles have a celestial origin, and mainly solar origin. Even the weekly moves of 5 days as halfperiod moves of 2weeks subcycle of the month are correlated to the 2fold Parker spiral shape (heliospheric current sheet) of the magnetic field of the sun. (See also http://cyclesoflight.blogspot.gr/2016/09/212celestialcyclesoflightinour.html ) Faster period cycles than the 5 days and 1 day, do exist (e.g. Helioseismological cycles of 3 hours, 1 hour and 5 minutes) but are not strong solar cycles and so also the emergence of such price types of periodicity are not so significant. It is a fallacy to assume that the markets have a selfsimilar behavior as the fractal theory assumes. By far, the fastest significant celestial cycles are the 1 days and 5 days.
From the cycles (see post 5) (not including their harmonics, that is their submultiples of the periods) the order of intensity of effect on the price movements, and therefore the order of predictability also is approximately the next:
Daily (1 Day earth)>>
1 Year (12 months, earth)>>
11 years global climate (Sunspots) >>
Month (4 weeks, sun+moon)>>
2 weeks solar magnetic cycle (Parker Spiral)>>
160 mins Helioseismologic cycle >>
55 mins Helioseismologic cycle>>
5 mins Helioseismologic cycle.
From the cycles (see post 5) (not including their harmonics, that is their submultiples of the periods) the order of intensity of effect on the price movements, and therefore the order of predictability also is approximately the next:
Daily (1 Day earth)>>
1 Year (12 months, earth)>>
11 years global climate (Sunspots) >>
Month (4 weeks, sun+moon)>>
2 weeks solar magnetic cycle (Parker Spiral)>>
160 mins Helioseismologic cycle >>
55 mins Helioseismologic cycle>>
5 mins Helioseismologic cycle.
THUS THE ORDER OF BETTER PREDICTABILITY IS
1) LONG TERM PERMANENT TREND
2) A CYCLE IN THE ORDER OF PREDICTABILITY DESCRIBED ABOVE AND REALIZED AS REACTION TO SUPEREXPONENTIAL TERMINAL MOVE (OR SPIKE).
1) LONG TERM PERMANENT TREND
2) A CYCLE IN THE ORDER OF PREDICTABILITY DESCRIBED ABOVE AND REALIZED AS REACTION TO SUPEREXPONENTIAL TERMINAL MOVE (OR SPIKE).
PRINCIPLE 3 (FRONTOFFICE RISK MANAGEMENT)
CONTROL OF THE MAXIMUM LOSS PER TRADE RELATIVE TO THE FUNDS. PORTFOLIO OF GRIDPOSITIONS TO HANDLE THE RANDOMNESS OF THE PATH OF PRICES
Any trading with margin (e.g. of futures or CFDs over the index of securities) must apply the Kelly rule of the percentage of risked funds. This rule also allows for an appropriate decreasing increase of escalation of the size of the open position during the development of the vector of a cycle, as soon as by trailing the percentage of risked funds of the previously open position so far, the risk of individual positions but also in total all of them that have not yet mad breakeven, is made zero or always less than a specified percentage of the funds (e.g. 5%6%).
The best way to handle the risk of the randomness of the path of prices is to create a portfolio of positions based on the sieve of a dense price grid (open pricely) or open timely (on elementary position per bar) .
The best way to handle the risk of the randomness of the path of prices is to create a portfolio of positions based on the sieve of a dense price grid (open pricely) or open timely (on elementary position per bar) .
PRINCIPLE 4 (BACKOFFICE RISK MANAGEMENT)
OPTIMAL SEPARATION OF THE FUNDS TO RISKED AND NONRISKED AND WITHDRAWALS RULE.
Any consumption by withdrawals of the funds, monthly or annually, must follow the rule of optimal separation of traded and nontraded funds, of the portfolio theory. If the actualized risk of the trading as appearing on the growth of the funds is sufficient low, then by the formula of optimal separation we may have 100% of the funds as traded funds, otherwise we will have less than 100% of the funds as traded. Usually for the American indices , the risked funds as margin should not exceed about 2/3 of the total funds. The withdrawals per period is at most 50% of the period profits of the traded funds. We reset the separation percentage of traded and nontraded funds daily for the cycles and annually for the constant trend position.
The true abundance of the growth of the funds is found not on the existence of cycles (principle 2) but in the dynamics of the long term trend (principle 1) and the escalation of the nominal leverage of the portfolio of the total positions after following carefully the two risk management principles 3 and 4.
The true abundance of the growth of the funds is found not on the existence of cycles (principle 2) but in the dynamics of the long term trend (principle 1) and the escalation of the nominal leverage of the portfolio of the total positions after following carefully the two risk management principles 3 and 4.
COMMENTS
1) From the principles 1, 2 we have as the only basic patterns of the price moves, that of constant growing trend, and that of almost cyclic behavior or cyclic with intermittent noncyclic time intervals. We may form an optimal portfolio of trading of 4 different position sizes , on the same index of securities based on the 1 constant trend and the 3 fastest cycles above the period of the day. If we want to make a portfolio on the e.g. the 3 indices of DowJones, SnP500 and NASDAQ, that will maximize the Sharpe ratio R/s (where R is the period rate of return and s its standard deviation) then , e.g. by measuring from 20092017 monthly rates of return, and calculating the covariances, we results in an optimal portfolio of 29% of DowJones, 31% of SnP500, and 40% of NASDAQ. Also the optimal separation to risked and non risked funds, that will maximize in a finite time interval the logarithm of the final value of the portfolio, gives as optimal percentage of funds the R/s^2 (see also post 3) which here it is 86.5%. Nevertheless if we would measure it with annual rates of return rather than monthly and for many decades back this percentage would be closer to 66%.
2) The requirement to take advantage of the constant growth trend, restricts the instruments for trading with margin (e.g. futures or CFDs) , to those of indexes of securities , excluding therefore commodities, forex and currency indexes. And we prefer index of securities rather than securities because the index has a guaranteed permanent growth , while a security has only a growth only during young age of its lifecycle.
3) The constant trend may reverse for a couple of years during strong crises, and during such times the cyclic behavior say of 1 or 2.75=5.5/2 years is stronger than the constant growth. Waves at the seasonal periods (3 months) are connected to what technical analysis calls continuation patterns, in other words flat channel of standing waves, where the market has not decide yet if it is going to continue increasing prices, or will start for a couple of years to decrease prices. The waves at the period of month or shorter appear usually as if random noise to the constant trend. From 1950 to 2000, for the American stock indices we discover the next statistics:
1) There are 12 periods of 3.7 years, that the index grows more than 100%
2) There are 11 periods of about 9 months (continuation pattern or standing wave of 3 months half period) that the index goes does about 25%30%.
4) The 2nd principle of cyclic behavior , is stronger that the usual methods of technical analysis, because, it sets specific times of staring and ending of the periods. It is a nonphenomenological principle, with source of causes , far before the shaping of the demandsupply interplay. The latter is modulated by the causes of the cyclic behavior.
The easiest cycles to observe is the monthly cycle. Then the 5,5 years cycle. Then the seasonal or 3 months cycles, and finally the short term of 5 days and 2 days. But among the various cycles what is readily measurable us a superexponential bubble usually of seasonal period (3months) , but sometimes of 1 months. We need to take the logarithm of the prices and apply a least squares line to observe the cycles, especially the extremity of the superexponential bubbles.
By far the constant trend is the pattern that makes most of the money, after the leverage and appropriate risk management. The the second best is the spontaneous superbubbles at some period of the above faint cyclic behaviors.
Here in the chart below which is with the prices after taking the logarithm, we may watch deviations from the linear moves (superexponential moves) and their highly predictable reaction lasting in the average 3.75 years. during 30 years!
The LogPeriodic Power Law Singularity (LPPLS) applies as the bubble reaches it point of crashing. In other words faster and faster waves appear with smaller amplitudes. (
see http://www2.math.su.se/matstat/reports/serieb/2009/rep7/report.pdf
https://warwick.ac.uk/fac/sci/maths/research/events/20132014/statmech/ght/programme/sornette_2.pdf
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0165819
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S187538921000249X
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Didier_Sornette
)
5) So we look for cycles and we trade along the constant trend preferably starting only, when a terminal spike against the constant trend appears (the terminal down spike may be at a daily chart but usually it is a whole month going down!) . To realize the emergence of cycles and vectors of them, we only need also to measure statistically the derivative (velocity) and second derivative (accelerationdeceleration) of the prices. But the simplest is the duration of the halfperiod. We set an initial stoploss of about 1/3 of the amplitude of the cycle, with position size that is defined by the Kelly rule, of percentage of funds to risk at each trade. We trail by about a quarter of the period. We close the trade after about a halfperiod of the cycle or again if after one month down move a second continues again down. But as we mentioned in 1) we have a small portfolio of trades at 3 different periods of 3 different cycles and one permanent position for the constant growth. For the latter position , we buy or sell annually to keep constant the optimal percentage of separation of risked and nonrisked funds, corresponding to this position.
6) For the formula of the Kelly rule see post 13 (also https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kelly_criterion)
Since the probability of success of trade p, can be measured only after a sample of trades, it is required a starting percentage f* of funds to risk in a trade (in the case of losing based on the stoploss) which is usually set equal to 2% of the funds, (corresponding to the Kelly formula for b=1, and p=51%). Later when at first a probability p can be measured from the backoffice of the sample of past trades, we may set b=1, and even later, we may also estimate a b from the set stoplosses and the profits of the trades.
The Kelly rule also may suggest that is may be sufficient profitable and easier to trade at larger scale, where the cyclic patterns are more clear and with higher probabilities of prediction/ E.g. if for a daily cycle the probability of prediction of the cycle to integrate is even 51% only , and we set a stoploss SL at 1/3 of the amplitude, with takeprofit TP=A, then the expected profit is 0.51*A0.49*A/3=0.346*A. While the optimal percentage of funds to expose is at most 34% only. But if at a weekly or monthly scale the probability of the cycle to integrate is higher , say 60%, then with the same settings, the average profit is 0.6*A0.4*A/3=0.466*A, while the optimal percentage of funds to expose is at most 46%. Notice that we say at most 34% and at most 46% and not equal because , we are not only interested in the maximum speed of growth of the funds, but also with constraints of risk of at bankruptcy at most at a level, which requires less percentages.
When the percentage of risked funds is f, and [f] is the integer part of it, while q=1p is the probability of loss of each trade then the probability s of bankruptcy is s=q^[1/f] =(1p)^[1/f] ( ^ is raising in power). E.g. if the risked funds is 2% and the probability of success of trade is 0.51, then a bankruptcy may occur if we lose [1/0.02]=50 times in sequence which has probability 0.49^50=2.2*10^(16), which is very small!
7) For the optimal separation of traded and nontraded funds as we utilize it here, we take as maximization rule the logarithm of the final funds at the end of a time interval. See [1] below. If the riskless nontraded funds have zero deposit rate of return, then it is proved that the percentage of funds to trade is R/σ^2 if it is less than 1 and 100% if it larger than 1. Where R is the rate of increase per period of the traded funds and σ the standard deviation of R. For the formula R/σ^2 of the optimal separation see post 3 or [1](also http://www.albany.edu/~bd445/Economics_802_Financial_Economics_Slides_Fall_2013/Separation_Theorem.pdf ,
[1] "Stochastic Differential equations" by B. K. Oksendal (Springer editions) page 223, example 11.5 .
[2] James Tobin. Liquidity preference as behavior towards risk. Review of Economic Studies, XXV(2):65–86, February 1958. HB1R4.)
In general if the riskfree rate of return of nontraded funds is Rf, then the formula is
(RRf)/σ^2
As a default starting separation percentage we may set 2/3 of the funds as traded, and 1/3 of them as nontraded. (This corresponds to an assumed initial annual rate of return of the funds of 10%, with standard deviation of it 36%, which is the usual for buyandhold of securities).
8) Principles 3) and 4) make the magical mix of high risk of uncertainty, with the low risk of certainty (of nontrading) producing the psychologically and economically acceptable and safe risk of uncertainty. Principle 3) is doing it at the frequency of every trade, while principle 4) is doing it at the frequency of withdrawals (annually usually). Since in principle 4) the separating of the funds to nontraded and traded is clearly of information nature and does not require transaction costs , it can be done daily, but it will take effect at every new trade, and mainly it will become highly effective each time we withdraw funds for consumption. The adjustments of principle 3) are effective obviously at each new trade.
9) We may compare the above techniques with the legendary Turtle trading system of the 80's (See also the book by M. W. Covel "The Complete TurtleTrader")
6) For the formula of the Kelly rule see post 13 (also https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kelly_criterion)
where:
 f* is the fraction of the current bankroll to wager, i.e. how much to bet;
 b is the net odds received on the wager ("b to 1"); that is, you could win $b (on top of getting back your $1 wagered) for a $1 bet. In trading it is the multiples of the stoploss , that will be the gain of the trade.
 p is the probability of winning;
 q is the probability of losing, which is 1 − p.
There is also the formula f=(p/a)(q/b) , where p, and q as before but a, b are interpreted as follows. If you win (probability p), having bet or exposed 1 unit of funds you result to 1+b funds , and if you lose (probability q) you result with 1a funds. In the case a=b=1 we have the previous solution f=pq.
From the previous in the first formula above we see that the higher the b is from 1, the less requirements for high probability of success. The less the b from 1, the more demanding are the probability of success of a trade thus the more difficult is to trade successfully. This is why having a Stoploss (SL) much ,less than a take profit (TP) , it is better and it will give a positive average profit even with only a 50% probability of win. E.g. with p=q=0.5, and with SL=(1/2)TP, then b=TP/SL=2 the average profit will be 0.5*SL, while the SL is optimal to be 0.25 of the exposable funds, with average profit 0.5*0.25=0.125 of the funds.
From the previous in the first formula above we see that the higher the b is from 1, the less requirements for high probability of success. The less the b from 1, the more demanding are the probability of success of a trade thus the more difficult is to trade successfully. This is why having a Stoploss (SL) much ,less than a take profit (TP) , it is better and it will give a positive average profit even with only a 50% probability of win. E.g. with p=q=0.5, and with SL=(1/2)TP, then b=TP/SL=2 the average profit will be 0.5*SL, while the SL is optimal to be 0.25 of the exposable funds, with average profit 0.5*0.25=0.125 of the funds.
Since the probability of success of trade p, can be measured only after a sample of trades, it is required a starting percentage f* of funds to risk in a trade (in the case of losing based on the stoploss) which is usually set equal to 2% of the funds, (corresponding to the Kelly formula for b=1, and p=51%). Later when at first a probability p can be measured from the backoffice of the sample of past trades, we may set b=1, and even later, we may also estimate a b from the set stoplosses and the profits of the trades.
The Kelly rule also may suggest that is may be sufficient profitable and easier to trade at larger scale, where the cyclic patterns are more clear and with higher probabilities of prediction/ E.g. if for a daily cycle the probability of prediction of the cycle to integrate is even 51% only , and we set a stoploss SL at 1/3 of the amplitude, with takeprofit TP=A, then the expected profit is 0.51*A0.49*A/3=0.346*A. While the optimal percentage of funds to expose is at most 34% only. But if at a weekly or monthly scale the probability of the cycle to integrate is higher , say 60%, then with the same settings, the average profit is 0.6*A0.4*A/3=0.466*A, while the optimal percentage of funds to expose is at most 46%. Notice that we say at most 34% and at most 46% and not equal because , we are not only interested in the maximum speed of growth of the funds, but also with constraints of risk of at bankruptcy at most at a level, which requires less percentages.
When the percentage of risked funds is f, and [f] is the integer part of it, while q=1p is the probability of loss of each trade then the probability s of bankruptcy is s=q^[1/f] =(1p)^[1/f] ( ^ is raising in power). E.g. if the risked funds is 2% and the probability of success of trade is 0.51, then a bankruptcy may occur if we lose [1/0.02]=50 times in sequence which has probability 0.49^50=2.2*10^(16), which is very small!
7) For the optimal separation of traded and nontraded funds as we utilize it here, we take as maximization rule the logarithm of the final funds at the end of a time interval. See [1] below. If the riskless nontraded funds have zero deposit rate of return, then it is proved that the percentage of funds to trade is R/σ^2 if it is less than 1 and 100% if it larger than 1. Where R is the rate of increase per period of the traded funds and σ the standard deviation of R. For the formula R/σ^2 of the optimal separation see post 3 or [1](also http://www.albany.edu/~bd445/Economics_802_Financial_Economics_Slides_Fall_2013/Separation_Theorem.pdf ,
[1] "Stochastic Differential equations" by B. K. Oksendal (Springer editions) page 223, example 11.5 .
[2] James Tobin. Liquidity preference as behavior towards risk. Review of Economic Studies, XXV(2):65–86, February 1958. HB1R4.)
In general if the riskfree rate of return of nontraded funds is Rf, then the formula is
(RRf)/σ^2
As a default starting separation percentage we may set 2/3 of the funds as traded, and 1/3 of them as nontraded. (This corresponds to an assumed initial annual rate of return of the funds of 10%, with standard deviation of it 36%, which is the usual for buyandhold of securities).
8) Principles 3) and 4) make the magical mix of high risk of uncertainty, with the low risk of certainty (of nontrading) producing the psychologically and economically acceptable and safe risk of uncertainty. Principle 3) is doing it at the frequency of every trade, while principle 4) is doing it at the frequency of withdrawals (annually usually). Since in principle 4) the separating of the funds to nontraded and traded is clearly of information nature and does not require transaction costs , it can be done daily, but it will take effect at every new trade, and mainly it will become highly effective each time we withdraw funds for consumption. The adjustments of principle 3) are effective obviously at each new trade.
9) We may compare the above techniques with the legendary Turtle trading system of the 80's (See also the book by M. W. Covel "The Complete TurtleTrader")
At the decade of the 80's it was a legend the systematic profits in the markets and even in the commodities of the turtle trading system. Actually there are the fast or monthly and the slow or seasonal turtle trading systems. The fast turtle trading system opens positions at the break out of the 20 days Dochian channel (in other words at breakouts of the maxima or minima of 20 days bars) when the previous trade was not a win. Notice that the turtle trading system misses a significant entry at the highs of the bars of the down spike waves of the 20 days Dochian channel as B. Williams and even A. Elder suggest with his 2days force index! This spike may appear as spike in th weekly or nomthly charts although only as a move with high slope in the daily charts. Definition of the start of seasonal trend within a constant tidaltrend by a spike makes the hysteresis of the measurement of a seasonal trend zero! It pyramids or escalates at N/2 price volatility intervals ,(see post 44 for the definition of N by the 20 days ATR, and with position size so that N price change corresponds to 1% change of the funds of the account). As an optimization we may prefer the psychological levels of decimal system , that is by intervals of 100 or 50 points. E.g. in the index NASDAQ and DowJones the 50 points are closest to the N/2 changes while in the index SnP500 10 points are closest to the N/2 changes. From this point of view the turtletrading is a Gridtrading. A gridtrading like a sieve creates a portfolio of a large number of positions that handles the randomness of the path of prices in the best way. The idea of escalation is of course to build gradually the position with densest reasonable grid, so as to risk always not more than an optimal little , here the 1% and then eliminate this risk with a breakeven and proceed escalating as much as the margin and risked stoploss allows in the available funds, while remaining at a quite early position of the total trendmove. Notice that the turtle trading is missing here that the escalation is done also with less risk at the down waves of the Dochian channel as A. Elder suggest with his 2days force index. ! The initial stop loss but not subsequent trailing is at 2N (thus 2% of the funds) price interval. When a new position is opened , the next day and in general the first next day that it is possible we to move the initial stop loss to a break even. In order to keep total position risk at a minimum, if additional units were added, the stops for earlier units were raised by 1⁄2 N (trailing). This generally meant that all the stops for the entire position would be placed at 2 N from the most recently added unit. However, in cases where later units were placed at larger spacing either because of fast markets causing skid, or because of opening gaps, there would be differences in the stops. The System has an alternate stop strategy that resulted in better profitability, but that was harder to execute because it incurred many more losses, which resulted in a lower win/loss ratio. This strategy was called the Whipsaw. Instead of taking a 2% risk on each trade, the stops were placed at 1⁄2 N for 1⁄2% account risk. If a given Unit was stopped out, the Unit would be reentered if the market reached the original entry price. If the position does not close by stoploss , an exit rule is that it is closed if prices hit the opposite side of a 10 days Dochian channel. This fast system obviously is tracking and utilizes the monthly cycles. The slow turtle trading system is the same as the fast except as entry rule is used the 6 weeks or 55 days Dochian channel with exit by 20 days Dochian channel.. This system system utilizes seasonal cycles of 5560 days. The turtle system was utilized mainly in the commodities markets.
There is also the faster "Parkerspiral" variation of the monthly turtle trading system where it is utilize the 10 days Dochian channel with exit by the 5 days Dochian channel.
We may notice that the Bill Williams system is approximately as the seasonal turtle trading, except that the initial entry (of long positions) is only at a (down) terminal spike so as to have less risk at the initial stop loss which may be way less than N/2, and that the escalation is decreasing and not of constant rate, while it is avoided as the seasonal trend while still with positive first derivative it acquires nevertheless negative second derivative. Also the trailingout is not by the 20 days Dochian channel but by the 5 days Dochian channel.
Alternative better exits can be timely rather than pricely, based on the timing of the halfperiod moves of the 5D, 10D and 30D or 6 weeks (See principle 2 above) for the seasonal turtle trade, or 10 days for the monthly turtle trade, and 5 days for the "ParkerSpiral" turtle trade. We may also combine timely exits with an at least 80% trailing of the floating profits at each position. Notice that in general an exittrailing rule based on percentage of floating profits for each position e.g. 66%, 80% etc (individual position not group of positions profits) will create a portfolio of different speed of trailingouts which like a portfolio of timescales of turtle trading, thus more robust to the risk! Older positions stay more in fluctuations while new positions may close and reopened more often.
Portfolios approach to handle more risk.: The best way to handle the uncertainty that a single index may exhibit, is to implement a portfolio of 33% allocation of the funds for all the three different cycles and timescales of the turtle trading, namely ParkerSpiral cycles, Monthly cycles, and Seasonal cycles. The fact that all these turtle systems use charts of the daily bars and same parameters of initial stoploss , and escalation, based on N, helps even better for the portfolio of trading systems.
There is also the faster "Parkerspiral" variation of the monthly turtle trading system where it is utilize the 10 days Dochian channel with exit by the 5 days Dochian channel.
We may notice that the Bill Williams system is approximately as the seasonal turtle trading, except that the initial entry (of long positions) is only at a (down) terminal spike so as to have less risk at the initial stop loss which may be way less than N/2, and that the escalation is decreasing and not of constant rate, while it is avoided as the seasonal trend while still with positive first derivative it acquires nevertheless negative second derivative. Also the trailingout is not by the 20 days Dochian channel but by the 5 days Dochian channel.
Alternative better exits can be timely rather than pricely, based on the timing of the halfperiod moves of the 5D, 10D and 30D or 6 weeks (See principle 2 above) for the seasonal turtle trade, or 10 days for the monthly turtle trade, and 5 days for the "ParkerSpiral" turtle trade. We may also combine timely exits with an at least 80% trailing of the floating profits at each position. Notice that in general an exittrailing rule based on percentage of floating profits for each position e.g. 66%, 80% etc (individual position not group of positions profits) will create a portfolio of different speed of trailingouts which like a portfolio of timescales of turtle trading, thus more robust to the risk! Older positions stay more in fluctuations while new positions may close and reopened more often.
Portfolios approach to handle more risk.: The best way to handle the uncertainty that a single index may exhibit, is to implement a portfolio of 33% allocation of the funds for all the three different cycles and timescales of the turtle trading, namely ParkerSpiral cycles, Monthly cycles, and Seasonal cycles. The fact that all these turtle systems use charts of the daily bars and same parameters of initial stoploss , and escalation, based on N, helps even better for the portfolio of trading systems.
Also a portfolio on the 3 indexes DowJones, SnP500, and NASDAQ by 29%, 31% and 40% respectively is a better practice that trading just one index of them, e.g. only NASDAQ.
As the above system of turtle trading (with the extensions based on the A. Elder system, B. Williams system, breakeven, decimal price levels of escalation, and cycle based timely exits) is quite solidcomplete and deterministic in conduction, probably the only discretion is 1) the percentages of allocation of the above two portfolios of 3 indexes and 3 time scales and 2) the adding or not based on the strength of the first derivative of the seasonal trend, and sign of the second derivative or the percentage of the halfperiod of the relevant cycle (5D, 10D, 30D).
For the profitability of manual such conduction on daily bars, we may notice that for strong seasonal trends, there may occur a more than doubling of the funds within a season (that is about 25% per month) if the utilized marginleverage by CFD's is 200 or more while with ordinary marginleverage of 20 of futures contracts is at least 10 times less, that is about 2.5% per month, as recorded by many turtletraders since 1980. For nonleveraged trading it is hardly worth the time and effort compared to buyandhold investment. \When the constant trendtide is absent and the market is in a seasonal stationarycontinuation pattern, practically the profit for one or more seasons may be zero.
As the above system of turtle trading (with the extensions based on the A. Elder system, B. Williams system, breakeven, decimal price levels of escalation, and cycle based timely exits) is quite solidcomplete and deterministic in conduction, probably the only discretion is 1) the percentages of allocation of the above two portfolios of 3 indexes and 3 time scales and 2) the adding or not based on the strength of the first derivative of the seasonal trend, and sign of the second derivative or the percentage of the halfperiod of the relevant cycle (5D, 10D, 30D).
For the profitability of manual such conduction on daily bars, we may notice that for strong seasonal trends, there may occur a more than doubling of the funds within a season (that is about 25% per month) if the utilized marginleverage by CFD's is 200 or more while with ordinary marginleverage of 20 of futures contracts is at least 10 times less, that is about 2.5% per month, as recorded by many turtletraders since 1980. For nonleveraged trading it is hardly worth the time and effort compared to buyandhold investment. \When the constant trendtide is absent and the market is in a seasonal stationarycontinuation pattern, practically the profit for one or more seasons may be zero.
Here we summarize an enhancement and improvement of the turtle trading, based on the above remarks from the systems of A. Elder and B. Williams and my discoveries of random celestial cycles in the markets. We may call it the 3cycles turtlegrid portfolio system, or in short THE CELESTIAL SIEVE.
The perception and conduction of the system is 4fold, and it is applied on daily bars.
1) (TIDE) At first we have identified in monthly (and weekly) charts the perpetual constant trend or tide (usually lasting at least 2 or 3.7 years , principle 1 above in post 68 ) on the 3 indexes DowJones, SnP500, and NASDAQ. For the sake of simplicity in writing we assume it here that it has been identified as upward, good for long positions.
2) (WAVE) Within that, occur seasonal moves with trend, that start after a seasonal continuation flat channel pattern or by a down spike in the weekly or monthly chart , whichis about one month down so no momentum measurement hysteresis is necessary in detection (B. Williams). Such moves end timely (principle 2 above in post 68 ) (5D, 10D, 30D) or by going to zero of the 1st statistical derivative with earlier sign negative 2nd statistical derivative or by a terminal spike or by a down spike that results to one month down move and the second month continues down! They also may start usually by timely pattern recognition, that is as reactions of same halfperiod (5D, 10D, 30D) moves in the opposite (down) direction.The most predictable effect or pattern , after the long term permanent trend , modulated by such cycles is the reaction to an superexponential moves (a blowup at the end of trend in the form of superexponential move or terminal spike).
3) (ENTRY, STOPLOSS , ESCALATION)
We open positions up at the starting spike (B. Williams) or backwards ripples signals by the 2D force indicator (A. Elder) or forwards breakouts of the decimal based N/2 grid (Turtle trading, and fractals by B. Williams) or even simpler we open timely that is at every daily bar one (elementary) position , as long as the total virtual exposure, by open positions that have not yet have breakeven , as percentage of the funds is upper bounded (e.g. 5%6%) and the open positions are with initial stop loss between 2N, N, or N/2 , when N by the appropriate position size is 1% of the available funds (principle 3 above in post 68) . We do not open positions by the Grid if the 2nd statistical derivative is negative or the 1st statistical derivative close to zero, or timely (principle 2 above in post 68 ) we are more than 80% of the duration of a halfperiod that is 5D, 10D, 30D etc.
4) (EXIT, TRAILOUT). We trailout either timely (Turtle, B. Williams) e.g. 5D, 10D, 30D or pricely (A. Elder) by X% of the floating profits (which is better as it creates a portfolio of time scales and positions) e.g. 50%, 66%, 80%, 90% which may be changing and increasing as the seasonal trend reaches its maturity etc
or we close timely (principle 2 above post 68) by expiration or maturity of halfperiods e.g. 5D, 10D, 30D etc or a down spike of one month and the second month continues down.
Therefore
1) by knowing what we want with clarity (desire for a road to financial freedom)
2) by knowing why we want it (so as to exist better with less inequalities and evolve collectively faster)
3) by establishing a rapport to or tuning with the collective consciousness through valid statistics and also the law of growth (in other words utilizing index funds that have stable for ever long term increasing trend)
4) by applying the right perception (of the existence of cycles)
5) and by having the desire for applying with determined persistence the particular optimal strategy of risk management (optimal Kelly rule and optimal separation of funds)
6) we get the ultimate divine simple and profound formula of success.
1) by knowing what we want with clarity (desire for a road to financial freedom)
2) by knowing why we want it (so as to exist better with less inequalities and evolve collectively faster)
3) by establishing a rapport to or tuning with the collective consciousness through valid statistics and also the law of growth (in other words utilizing index funds that have stable for ever long term increasing trend)
4) by applying the right perception (of the existence of cycles)
5) and by having the desire for applying with determined persistence the particular optimal strategy of risk management (optimal Kelly rule and optimal separation of funds)
6) we get the ultimate divine simple and profound formula of success.
And although we may teach the knowhow of this simple method, to others there is no guarantee, that they will also succeed (the 6)) , because there is no guarantee that they may also have the persisting desire for this (the 1)) , the right motive or cause ( the 2)) , the correct embedding to and tuning with the collective consciousness (the 3) ) , the subtle perception of the reality of the cycles (the 4)) and finally the desire that gives determination to persevere with consistency to the particular right optimal risk management policies (the 5)). The desire must exist not only for the goal and cause but also for the particular method and way.
When we are dealing with margin trading, the risk is high and it should be monitored carefully. To see the difficulty of it here is the relevant quantities, and formulae, e.g. for the index funds CFD's of Nasdaq , SnP500, Dow Jones etc
STARTING WITH EFFECTIVE LEVERAGE<=1 Sometimes trading with margin (leverage >1) may give worse results than trading with leverage =1, when we do not know ho to handle in risk of the leverage. One way is to start opening positions with effective leverage (see below for definition, effective or nominal leverage=total value of the position/total balance of the funds) <=1, and once we have breakeven , and insure that we will not lose any money with a stoploss , only then to try to open a next position with leverage <=1 etc. In this way we may escalate to leverage larger than 1, but the non insured positions by breakeven always have leverage at most =1, and so we succeed that our account will not crash. Even if the market will not allow very significant escalation, by closing positions at waving backwards, this method allows to invest to index funds starting with little money and using the CFD's instead of the index funds itself or futures on it. Having little money should not mean that we are forced to lose them before reaching an almost buyandhold tactic. And the current method shows how even with little money we can have at an investment at least as profitable as the buyandhold scheme. We escalate in this way till as long as the used margin of all the positions does not exceed the optimal separation ratio of the Markovitz Portfolio theory, which for USindices and for daily bars is 100%, Thus here the total margin should not exceed 80% of the balance of the funds, as the remaining 20% is left for the maximum exposure when opening individual or elementary positions. After reaching this maximum escalation we do not apply buyandhold, but we apply the sellbuy adjustments so as to keep this ratio stable . Initially we put a stop loss when we open a position (with effective leverage <=1) at 4N or 5 days low, and then we breakeven. After that we trail at 50% of the profits , and when the psoition is deeply in profits with 66% of the profits. Position that close by the above rules are reopened with the 2Days High
So in overall the system goes as follows:
( From 1950 to 2000, for the American stock indices we discover the next statistics:
1) There are 12 periods of 3.7 years, that the index grows more than 100%
2) There are 11 periods of about 9 months (continuation pattern or standing wave of 3 months half period) that the index goes does about 25%30%.)
ANYONE WHO WILL TRY TO MAKE MONEY SOLELY BY TRADING AND SUCH SYSTEMS OF TRANSACTIONS SHOULD BE AWARE THAT THERE IS A VERY POWERFUL AND ALMOST UNBEATABLE COLLECTIVE WILL SO AS NOT TO SUCCEED! NOONE WANTS PEOPLE TO QUITE THEIR JOBS AND MAKE MONEY THIS WAY AS IT IS SOMEHOW PARASITIC. IT IS IN SOME SENSE UNETHICAL AS A PRACTICE ENFORCEABLE TO THE MAJORITY. AND OF COURSE NEITHER THOSE WHO HAVE LARGE CAPITAL WANT THAT A MAJORITY WILL MAKE MONEY THIS WAY, AS THEY WOULD PREFER THAT THEY WORK IN THEIR COMPANIES FOR THEM. ONLY IN SPECIAL CONTINGENCIES AND SITUATIONS SOMETHING LIKE THIS WOULD BE ETHICAL. AND IN PARTICULAR A HIGHER MORALITY THAT WOULD SUPPORT SUCH A PRACTICE, WOULD BE PROVABLE WITH COLLECTIVELY BENEVOLENT DEEDS FROM A POSSIBLE SURPLUS OF SUCH MONEY!
When we are dealing with margin trading, the risk is high and it should be monitored carefully. To see the difficulty of it here is the relevant quantities, and formulae, e.g. for the index funds CFD's of Nasdaq , SnP500, Dow Jones etc
STARTING WITH EFFECTIVE LEVERAGE<=1 Sometimes trading with margin (leverage >1) may give worse results than trading with leverage =1, when we do not know ho to handle in risk of the leverage. One way is to start opening positions with effective leverage (see below for definition, effective or nominal leverage=total value of the position/total balance of the funds) <=1, and once we have breakeven , and insure that we will not lose any money with a stoploss , only then to try to open a next position with leverage <=1 etc. In this way we may escalate to leverage larger than 1, but the non insured positions by breakeven always have leverage at most =1, and so we succeed that our account will not crash. Even if the market will not allow very significant escalation, by closing positions at waving backwards, this method allows to invest to index funds starting with little money and using the CFD's instead of the index funds itself or futures on it. Having little money should not mean that we are forced to lose them before reaching an almost buyandhold tactic. And the current method shows how even with little money we can have at an investment at least as profitable as the buyandhold scheme. We escalate in this way till as long as the used margin of all the positions does not exceed the optimal separation ratio of the Markovitz Portfolio theory, which for USindices and for daily bars is 100%, Thus here the total margin should not exceed 80% of the balance of the funds, as the remaining 20% is left for the maximum exposure when opening individual or elementary positions. After reaching this maximum escalation we do not apply buyandhold, but we apply the sellbuy adjustments so as to keep this ratio stable . Initially we put a stop loss when we open a position (with effective leverage <=1) at 4N or 5 days low, and then we breakeven. After that we trail at 50% of the profits , and when the psoition is deeply in profits with 66% of the profits. Position that close by the above rules are reopened with the 2Days High
So in overall the system goes as follows:
CONSTANT GROWTH TRANSACTION
SYSTEM
( From 1950 to 2000, for the American stock indices we discover the next statistics:
1) There are 12 periods of 3.7 years, that the index grows more than 100%
2) There are 11 periods of about 9 months (continuation pattern or standing wave of 3 months half period) that the index goes does about 25%30%.)
ANYONE WHO WILL TRY TO MAKE MONEY SOLELY BY TRADING AND SUCH SYSTEMS OF TRANSACTIONS SHOULD BE AWARE THAT THERE IS A VERY POWERFUL AND ALMOST UNBEATABLE COLLECTIVE WILL SO AS NOT TO SUCCEED! NOONE WANTS PEOPLE TO QUITE THEIR JOBS AND MAKE MONEY THIS WAY AS IT IS SOMEHOW PARASITIC. IT IS IN SOME SENSE UNETHICAL AS A PRACTICE ENFORCEABLE TO THE MAJORITY. AND OF COURSE NEITHER THOSE WHO HAVE LARGE CAPITAL WANT THAT A MAJORITY WILL MAKE MONEY THIS WAY, AS THEY WOULD PREFER THAT THEY WORK IN THEIR COMPANIES FOR THEM. ONLY IN SPECIAL CONTINGENCIES AND SITUATIONS SOMETHING LIKE THIS WOULD BE ETHICAL. AND IN PARTICULAR A HIGHER MORALITY THAT WOULD SUPPORT SUCH A PRACTICE, WOULD BE PROVABLE WITH COLLECTIVELY BENEVOLENT DEEDS FROM A POSSIBLE SURPLUS OF SUCH MONEY!
1)
We start opening
positions , each one with maximumexposure 1%2% and in total all of them 10%
20% (more than 10% better only rarely in high success probability occasions. We also ensure that we have sufficient funds, and the size of the position is small enough so that the effective leverage (effective leverage=value of the position/total Balance of the funds) is at most equal to 1 (unleveraged).
2)
We start insuring profits (by trailing the
stop loss) at first with a 5Days Low. (Parker magnetic solar spiral) . We set
at first Breakeven then 50% insurance of profits, and finally 66%=2/3
insurance of profits.
3)
In case of
backwards moves that it closes positions wit exit rules as in 2) , we reopen
with the 2days High rule (Parker magnetic solar spiral) . The volume size is
determined by the maximum exposure rules.
4)
We proceed as
before till the maximum optimal separation ratio of the instrument as projected
to the margin used in the funds of the trading account. Funds=Closed
positions , as Balance which is less than the Equities e.g. in MT4
platform. The inverse of this ratio in MT4 is calculated and displayed as Margin
Level. For daily monitoring
frequency (sampling rate) and instruments like US index funds or Bitcoin the
optimal separation ratio is 100%. But even this for the margintrading means
that here the optimal separation ratio is about 80%, as the 20% is left for the
maximum exposure at the reopening of the positions (thus Margin Level 125%).
5)
Constant
Optimal Separation ratio rule. In the
case again that the margin increases above the 80% then we close positions ,
which will increase the balance of the funds, due to floating profits and will
decrease the margin percentage. We close the minimum number of positions to
restore the constant optimal ratio of 80%, which is a rule different logic and
optimality from the maximum exposure percentage rule. In case we have margin equal to 80% of the
balance of the funds, and the maximum exposure is realized by a turn of the
market, again we close positions , the minimum number that is necessary, so as
to restore the optimal constant separation rule of 80% , and also a 20%
available for maximum exposure at reopening positions.
6)
The closing
and reopening of the positions as in 2)3) is different from the closing of the
positions as 5). In the case of 2)3) it is unwillingly an involuntary and of
size determined by the maximumexposure rule, while in the case of 5) it is
willingly and voluntary , and of sizes based on the constant optimal separation
ratio.
7)
The closing
and reopening of positions by the voluntary optimal constant ratio rule 80% ,
can be done also for closing by utilizing the backwards moves of the market and
the 5days lows rule (Parker magnetic solar spiral) and for opening by the
2day highs (Parker magnetic solar
spiral), instead of just percentage of ratio deviation trigger. The size of the
closingreopening is the minimum to restore
the constant ratio rule, and I may be position sizes less than the sizes
suggested by the maximumexposure rule. E.g. e may close at every 5% deviations
from 80% , while the maximumexposure rule may suggest 10% exposure positions.
Therefore the final and long term
constant ratio rule, has at reopening positions less risk than the maximum
exposure rule.
8)
The 5days
lows 2days highs rules is because of the celestial cycle of the solar magnetic
Parker spiral.
9)
The nominal
leverage or effective leverage , in other words the value of the total
position compared to the balance of the funds, denoted by LE at the optimal
separation ratio of OSR=80% is
LE=((OSR))*LM, where LM is the marginleverage of the account. E.g. LM=200
OSR=0.8 then LE=160. For
LM=500, OSR=0.8, LE=400, which is really high to my
practice so far.
10)
SUMMARY
Before reaching the optimal constant separation ratio,
the exposure reaches the maximum preset,
at opening the positions. At the optimal
constant separation ratio (e.g. 80%) it is less. Both cases can be triggered by
the 5D/2D lowshighs rules. The front office procedures are simple the
backofice a little more complicated.
QUANTITIESMAGNITUDES OF
RISKMANAGEMENT OF ESCALATION AND THEIR SYMBOLS.
L_{T }:
Effective (or nominal) leverage of the Portfolio. That is the ratio of the
value of the open position by the portfolio and the
balance (closed positions) of the funds
L_{0 , }l_{0
}: Effective (or nominal) leverage of the Portfolio of single elementary
position.
L_{M }:
Margin leverage of the instrument in this account.
M_{0 }:
margin of elementary position P_{0}
M :
Size of the portfolio in number of elements or positions
P_{0 }:
Elementary position in volume size of contracts
V(P_{0}):
Value (nominal) of the open elementary position
P_{0} .
Ind: Index
fund or instrument in general.
Pr(Ind):
Market price of the Index fund or instrument in general.
M_{max }: maximum number of elementary positions in the portfolio, by
escalation till optimal separation ratio reached.
R_{s}
or X_{s}: Optimal separation ratio for the instrument and the chosen
bins (usually days).
N: average
true range of a bar (day) in price units.
R_{N}:
The previous N, as percentage of the price of the index or instrument.
F_{0 }:
Initial balance of the funds for transactions.
m: Contract
size, at the symbol specifications of the instrument or constant multiplier to
convert price changes into money for the instrument.
CS: Constant
contract size in forex
e_{0}:
Maximum exposure percentage of the Balance of the funds , per elementary
position P_{0 }, usually 2%.
HYPOTHESES
1)
Escalation
spacing N of the grid, which remain constant during the escalation
2)
StopLoss 2N
3)
e_{0}:
corresponds to 2N exposure.
4)
We
assume funds remaining constant for the
procedure escalation
5)
We
assume leverage l_{0 }constant during the escalation.
For FX
instead of index funds Contact
size/Pr(ind)=m(t) which is variable while for index it is constant.
If the starting size of the elementary position (for indexes) is based on having the effective leverage equal to 1, then instead of the formula P(0)=e(0)F(0)/(2Nm) as above we use another by solving the equation P(0)mPr(Ind)/F(0)=1, which gives
P(0)=F(0)/mPr(Ind)
THE PREVIOUS ESCALATION AND TRAIL OUT CAN BE EITHER WITH SPOT MARKET INSTRUMENTS E.G. CFD'S OR EVEN CALL OPIONS .
P(0)=F(0)/mPr(Ind)
THE PREVIOUS ESCALATION AND TRAIL OUT CAN BE EITHER WITH SPOT MARKET INSTRUMENTS E.G. CFD'S OR EVEN CALL OPIONS .
AN ALTERNATIVE SIMPIFICATION OF THE MATHEMATICALLY OPTIMAL METHOD OF CONSTANT RATIO ON INVESTED AND NONINVESTED FUNDS:
An alternative simplification of the constant ratio method to handle mathematically optimally a trending in the long run, instrument (e.g. US indexes etc) is to define A PRTOFOLIO OF TW OPARTS, ONE BUYAND HOLD AND ONE SHORTERM TARDES AT EXTREMT CASES OV VERY HIGH PREDICTABILITY UP.
In other words:
A) A LONGTERM STRINCTLY BUYANDHOLD LONG TERM PART AT X% F THE FUNDS. WE ESCALATE AFTER BREAKEVEN AS ABOVE BUT WE DO NOT TRAIL OLY SET A TAKE PROFIT ABOUT 1 OR 2 TIMES THE STOPLOSS RISK.
B) AN UP ONLY SPORADIC SHORTTERM TRADES PART AT Y% OF THE FUNDS (X%+X%=100%). (NORMALLY IT SHOULD BE TIME PERIODIC SHORT TRADES IF THE MODELOF THE TREND IS A DRIFT , BUT THE SUCCESS RATE IS BY FAR HIGHER WHEN THEY ARE SPORADIC WHEN OPPORTUNITIES APPEAR BECAUSE TRULLY THE TREND IS NOT JUST A DRIFT BUT INVOLVES LINEAR NONMARSHALLIAN DEMANDSUPPLY COUPLING)
IN THIS 2PARTS PORTFOLIO ,THE HIGHER THE VOLATILITY THE HIGHER THE Y%, AND THE LOWER THE TREND OR DRIFT THE LOWER THE X%.
(E.G. UTILIZE THE ALIGATOR INDICATOR OF BILL WILLIAMS AT VARIOYS SHORT TERM SCALES, AND OPEN POSITIONS WITH VERY TIGHT STOP LOSS AT DOWNWARD PANIC MOVES THAT ARE EXHAUSTIVE OR FINAL SUPEREXPONENTIAL (LIKE ENDTREND SPIKES) , AND CLOSING THE POSITION WHEN REACHED THE MIDDLE RED LINE OFTHE ALIGATOR. FINAL SUPER EXPOSMENTIAL EXTREME MOVES ARE DETECTED VISUALLY OVER THE ALIGATOR "OPENING" OF ITS LINES AND ANGLE WITH THEM AS THEY APPEAR ALMOST LIKE SPIKES. BOTH BILL WILLIAMS AND DIDDIER SORNETTE (SEE ABOVE IN THIS POST) HAVE DISCOVERED THIS AS HIGHLY PREDICTABLE SITUATION. DIDIER SORNETTE CALLS SUCH FINAL SUPEREXPONENTIAL MOVES THAT REACT CONVERSELLY AS SUPERBUBBLES. EXPERIMENT SHOWS A SUCCESS RATE HIGHER THAN 80%. STILL A PARETO RULE HOLDS: MORE THAN 80% OF THE TIME OCCUR LESS THAN 20% OF THE OPPORTUNITIES OF FINAL SUPEREXPONENTIAL MOVES. CHUCK HUGHES HAS APPLIED IT WITH BOUGHT CALL OPTIONS WHICH IS BY A FAR A BETTER INSTRUMENT TO DO THE B) PART OF THE PORTFOLIO WITH A MONTHLY RATE OF RETURN OF ABOUT 10% AND SUCCESS RATE HIGHER TO 95% . )
In order to conduct successfully an intraday system of transactions , that is successful in the long run and easy to keep on applying it the next points must be met.
1) It must be relatively utterly simple! Only the "eye of simplicity"can put order and tame the chaos of intraday price patterns! It must be manual and not automated!
2) Therefore it has to be one only pattern among the 4 price patterns (see post 32)
3) To deal with this one only pattern, we may apply simplifiers like , velocity or rate of change of prices, acceleration, supportresistance.
4) Celestial periodicity will give the longrun stability, but it need not be one only frequency or period but a few neighboring frequencies or periods in the spectrum of celestial frequencies or cycles.
5) But most of all the strongest simplifier is that , when measuring the velocity or rate of change , by a stratified sampling hypothesis test, then it has to be an extreme value , which will indicate a reaction or closing of the cycle. This in particular means that we entirely avoid the parametric predictive models of econometry that assume predictability at every time step, as for such to be succsesful they would need to be pod stochastoc coeficients and there practically no such econometric models, and we resort to the more robust and with less assumptions nonparametric statistics and in particular of a single nonparametric measurement of the velocity of the prices, with stratified sampling.
The stochastic model that is relevant is again the simplest possible one, e.g. starting from that of the Portfolio Theory of Markowitz, where for the rate of return R we postulate R(t)=R(0)+R(s,t)+e(t) where the R(0) is the constant average rate of return in time of the Markowitz theory of portfolio (constant trend) , R(s,t) is the seasonal part ,with average value nonzero , and on which we apply the above hypothesis test at various frequencies or sampling horizons or with stratified sampling , and e(t) has average value zero , it is normally distributed and is the random excitation part. The stochastic model has nomemory and for the sampling each step gives independent observation. From the above equation we may derive with the exponential function the final stochastic process of the prices and volumes that will be lognormally distributed.
6) It must be a phenomenon tested scientifically with valid quantitative procedures , with sufficient good (intermittent) predictability , for many years.
7) The financial result should be adequate (e.g. >= 1MDS).
8) The financial result, in my case, is to be used not only for economic freedom, but also for a worthy goal e.g. so as to finance my innovative research in the new millennium digital mathematics.
9) One of the solutions to the above requirements is the best (vanila) options spreads strategy of Chuck Hughes as in post 41, which woeks only when the market has high volatility (thus implied volatility too)
In order to conduct successfully an intraday system of transactions , that is successful in the long run and easy to keep on applying it the next points must be met.
1) It must be relatively utterly simple! Only the "eye of simplicity"can put order and tame the chaos of intraday price patterns! It must be manual and not automated!
2) Therefore it has to be one only pattern among the 4 price patterns (see post 32)
3) To deal with this one only pattern, we may apply simplifiers like , velocity or rate of change of prices, acceleration, supportresistance.
4) Celestial periodicity will give the longrun stability, but it need not be one only frequency or period but a few neighboring frequencies or periods in the spectrum of celestial frequencies or cycles.
5) But most of all the strongest simplifier is that , when measuring the velocity or rate of change , by a stratified sampling hypothesis test, then it has to be an extreme value , which will indicate a reaction or closing of the cycle. This in particular means that we entirely avoid the parametric predictive models of econometry that assume predictability at every time step, as for such to be succsesful they would need to be pod stochastoc coeficients and there practically no such econometric models, and we resort to the more robust and with less assumptions nonparametric statistics and in particular of a single nonparametric measurement of the velocity of the prices, with stratified sampling.
The stochastic model that is relevant is again the simplest possible one, e.g. starting from that of the Portfolio Theory of Markowitz, where for the rate of return R we postulate R(t)=R(0)+R(s,t)+e(t) where the R(0) is the constant average rate of return in time of the Markowitz theory of portfolio (constant trend) , R(s,t) is the seasonal part ,with average value nonzero , and on which we apply the above hypothesis test at various frequencies or sampling horizons or with stratified sampling , and e(t) has average value zero , it is normally distributed and is the random excitation part. The stochastic model has nomemory and for the sampling each step gives independent observation. From the above equation we may derive with the exponential function the final stochastic process of the prices and volumes that will be lognormally distributed.
6) It must be a phenomenon tested scientifically with valid quantitative procedures , with sufficient good (intermittent) predictability , for many years.
7) The financial result should be adequate (e.g. >= 1MDS).
8) The financial result, in my case, is to be used not only for economic freedom, but also for a worthy goal e.g. so as to finance my innovative research in the new millennium digital mathematics.
9) One of the solutions to the above requirements is the best (vanila) options spreads strategy of Chuck Hughes as in post 41, which woeks only when the market has high volatility (thus implied volatility too)
Sunday, January 15, 2017
65. THE IMPACT OF THE CONVERGENCE OF THE GREEK ECONOMY TO EMI IN THE STOCKMARKET: BAYES, NESTED ESTIMATION OF THE STOCK TRENDS
THE IMPACT OF
THE CONVERGENCE OF THE GREEK ECONOMY TO EMI IN THE STOCKMARKET: BAYES, NESTED
ESTIMATION OF THE STOCK TRENDS
By
Dr. Costas Kyritsis
National
Technical University of Athens 1999
1. Introduction
The time when an economy enters the first world
economy is a very interesting time. It is even more interesting if the group of
nations where it enters, in this case European Union, becomes gradually, with
respect to some parameters, the strongest economy in the world.
Although the Greek economy is by far not perfect or
advanced, there is the firm decision to handle its indices, as much as
possible, so as to qualify according to the standards of European Monetary
Integration. These standards are set, for the Greek economy, mainly in the next
profile:
a) The Inflation rate less than 1.5%
b) The deficit of the Government less than 0.9% of the
Gross National Product
c) The national debt less than 100% of the Gross
National Product
d) Growth rate of the Gross National Product at least
4.5%.
2. Macroeconomics
factors influencing the prices in the Athens Stockmarket
There is no doubt that the previous standards of EMI
make a profile of a mature economy and also no doubt that a young state like
the Greek (less than 2 hundred years
old) has major difficulties in qualifying in the profile of EMI, before 2001
.It is worth trying nevertheless, even only for the benefit of eliminating the
continuous currency devaluation of the national wealth through the exchange
rates.
Experience has showed that the basic magnitudes of
Macroeconomics that have significant impact on the changes of prices of stocks
in the Stockmarket are:
a) The average rate of deposit in the banks, or the
rate of change of the timevalue of money.
b) The exchange rates
c) Massmedia information about other economies and
changes of prices in other Stockmarkets.
The procedures with which the previous factors
influence the changes of prices in Stockmarket is always through the aggregate
demand and supply for each stock:
1) Surplus of demand to purchase stocks in the
computer waiting lines creates growth of the price of the stock (Bullmarket)
2) Surplus of supply to sell stocks in the computers
waiting lines creates falling of the price of the stock (Bearmarket)
The exact equations of how stochastic demand and
supply results in to the random variables of price and volume and their
changes, is not an issue to cover in the present paper. It is not of
intractable difficulty to formulate though.
We shall state, nevertheless, the basic equations of competition
of demand and supply for each stock. The equations of two populations in
competition have been a topic of systematic study. It may not be surprising
that such equations have been studied and solved not in the science of
Economics but in Ecology. They are a standard topic in an area initiated by
Volterra and his equations for populations.
Let us denote by x (tn) and y(tn) the average
value, at time
tn of the random variable of the volume of orders of
the demand to buy and of the volume of
orders of the supply to sell a
stock. The next equations describe the interplay of demand and supply:
(1) x(tn+1)= x (tn)(ab x (tn)c y(tn))
(2) y(tn+1)= y (tn)(ef x (tn)g y(tn))
The symbols a, b, c, d, e, f. g are constants defining
the competition.
Such equations, formulated in continuous time and
deterministic mode are the well known equations of competition in Ecology (see
e.g. [Maynard S.J] p 59 formula 36).We notice that they are nonlinear
equations. They have been solved numerically,
studied and applied in many situations of populations in competition
.The populations involved here are of the investors who want to buy and those
who want to sell .The equations describe the
effect in demand and supply of the automatic negotiation algorithm in
the computers waiting lines . These equations if formulated in continuous time
they do not involve oscillations. But when formulated in discrete time and as
stochastic processes or time series, they do involve (nonlinear) oscillations which is the common
experience for anyone that has spent some time in front of a monitor of a
Stockmarket company. If we make use of the preypredator or hostparasitoid ,
Volterra equations that different from the equations (1), (2) only at a plus
sign instead of a minus sign at he coefficient f in (2), then we get larger scale oscillation.
During 1997
there was a major impact on the price growth in the Athens Stockmarket of the
size, at year base, close to 50% .It is supposed that it was created by the
fall of the deposit rates of the banks
(factor a) mentioned in this paragraph ).
During 1998 there was an even larger impact on the
price growth of a size close to 70%. It is supposed that it was created mainly
by the currency devaluation in the exchange rates decided by the government in
March 1998.
As the latter case was the most dramatic, we shall try
to analyze it with a new statistical method.
3. Bayes
fractallike nested estimation of time series
As it is known there is a topic in statistics called Bayes estimators. (See e.g. [Mood A.Graybaill A.F.Boes D.C.] pp 339351). The main idea is that
when we have a parameter in a distribution that we must estimate, we may assume
as a metalevel that it is already a random variable with an a priori given
distribution . For example if we are estimating a Gaussian (normal) random
variable N(m,s) we may assume that we have a double variation and a second
stochastic level and that the parameters m, s are already Gaussian (normal)
random variables with means mm , ms and variances Sm Ss . It is not that we want to make the computations more
complicated but that we need to fit a more flexible model to the real
situation.
For doubly stochastic time series see [Tong
H.] pp 117118. We shall describe a general method to refine autoregressive
time series models, such that at each refinement, it appears higher order
variability and higher Bayes order as discussed above. For the sake of clarity
we shall apply it to the BlackScholes
lognormal model of the prices of stocks .The model is known in
stochastic processes and stochastic differential equations as the geometric
Brownian motion . (see [Oksendal B.] pp
5961 ,198199 and 223225 or [Karlin Staylor H.M.] pp 267269 ,357
,363,385 and [Mallaris A.G.Brock W.A.] pp 220223. It is a linear SDE of constant
coefficients and multiplicative «noise»
or innovation.
Although much
popularity is related to this model, it
cannot describe but the «buyandhold» situation in the Stockmarket . We may
try to vary this model with the idea of Bayes so as to include reversal
patterns and price motion with or without resistance. We supplement the idea of
Bayes by corresponding to each new stochastic or Bayes level a finer grid of
the argument .In this way different models appear to different scale regimes,
but still something is repeated thus we follow also the basic idea of
selfsimilarity introduced graphically
by Mandelbrot with fractals and
multifractals .
Mandelbrot
has applied his idea of selfsimilar fractals to the Stockmarkets, arguing that
much of the oscillating effects of stock prices are not observed in the
BlackScholes model.
There are many new results of qualitative dynamics of
dynamic systems under the term «chaos». The ideas are not irrelevant but in
order to apply them in a professional way to Stockmarkets we require
them in stochastic differential equations or time
series (see [Tong H.])
The idea of nested patterns of «tides» (trend of a
year or more) ,«waves» (in seasonal horizon) and «ripples» (day or intraday
oscillations ) goes back to the theory of Dow and Elliot in the Technical
Analysis of stocks (see [Murphy J.J.] pp
2435 ,371414). [Murphy J.J.] . It
is also obvious the relevancy of the Elliot wave theory with Spectral Analysis
and fast Fourier transformation in time series.
The way to enhance the «buyandhold» model of
BlackScholes is as follows:
1) We define a nested system of grids in the time
argument .For example starting with an horizon of a year we partition it to
smaller seasonal horizons (e.g. 60 Stockmarket days). We may continue in this
way to monthly, weekly and finally daily horizons .
2) For the first one year horizon we perform an
ordinary estimation of the BlackScholes model .It gives the buyandhold
trend.
3) In the seasonal horizon we increase the Bayes
stochastic order. For each season in the one year horizon we estimate a second
Bayes order model. The four seasonal models are pasted automatically to a more
flexible overall model than the BlackScholes
4) We continue to increase the Bayes order by one for
each finer horizon, of a month, a week or a day and we estimate a new model for
each smaller horizon.
The resulting time series fits pretty well to the real
life surprises of the Stockmarket .
The method resembles the splines in numerical analysis
only that it is not performed on polynomials and the models are not
deterministic but stochastic.
A good question is how we increase the Bayes order. A
simple method is to consider the constant coefficients of the initial model as
varying linearly relative to time. This introduces for estimation new constant
parameters .At each finer grid we assume the previous constant parameters as
varying linearly and we estimate the new constant parameters.
In the next paragraph we shall perform the method at
two only horizons of one year and a
seasonal of 60 Stockmarket days .
4. An example:
The impact of the currency
devaluation in the spring of 1998.
As we mentioned in the previous paragraph the
BlackScholes model of the prices of stocks is the geometric Brownian motion in
other words defined in continuous time by the stochastic differential equation:
(3) dx=rxdt+σxdz.
Where x is the price of the stock and z is a Brownian
motion.
In this example we implement the discrete time,
nonhomogeneous timeseries version defined by the equation
(4)
xn+1=(r+s e_{n} )xn
We make use of a close relative to it, which is the next time series in explicit form:
(5) x_{n}=exp(rn+se_{n})_{}
Where e_{n }is
a normal error or innovation. We do not insist on any stationarity assumption.
We make the
assumption that the «noise» or innovation term is additive in the exponent instead of multiplicative and of constant
variance, that is, an homoskedasticity assumption that makes the variance of
the residual, in the exponent, constant in time.
This simplifies the estimation of the parameters of
the time series
The application of the original model of constant
coefficients for an one year horizon is straightforward and is very well known.
We proceed with the nested Bayes estimation that we described in the previous
paragraph .We assume for the four seasonal (3months) horizons of one year that
the model has variable coefficients
and that the coefficients vary linearly with respect to time. This introduces
new constant coefficients a, b in (5) :
(rn= an+b)
The exponent becomes now quadratic with respect to
time.
(6) xn=exp((an+b)n+se_{n})
More generally we estimate the equation
(7) xn=exp((an+b)n+c+ se_{n})
We notice that the equation is almost the normal curve
except of a linear term or sign reversal.
To estimate it we take the logarithm of the prices and
apply polynomial regression.
The exponent is in general an at most quadratic
polynomial .If the coefficient of the quadratic term is negative, we have an
instance of an almost Gaussian (normal) curve, which is interpreted as follows:
1) Increase of the prices with an asymptotic upper
resistance, which becomes a reversal pattern (first part of the curve)
2) Decrease of the prices with an obvious asymptotic
lower resistance at zero, thus practically without resistance (second part of
the curve)
If the coefficient of the quadratic term of the
exponent is positive then the probable cases are:
3) Increase of the prices very fast (faster than the
simple exponential growth) without upper resistance (second part of the curve)
4)
Decrease of the prices with lower asymptotic resistance that becomes a reversal
pattern (first part of the curve)
Thus the qualitative dynamics of the stock at each
time are described by the above four dynamic states
The results of the least squares estimation of this
linear model with time variable
coeficients are given below.
The estimated model between the
dates 10/03/1998 (n=1) and 05/06/1998
(n=60),that is 60 Stockmarket days is
(8) xn=exp(((0,00025)n+0,023223)n+7,317873+ e_{n})
The maximum of the normal curve occurs in the day n=47 that is in 19/05/98.
In this date the model gives a clear selling signal .Of course we cannot
trade with the general index .But it would give one if we had applied it for a
particular stock . The author scored
code in visual basic in Excell in order to analyse the buying and
selling signals during the year.The results were quite positive for forecasting
.For further
analysis of optimal trading se bibliography below from BREIMAN L.1961 to GENCAY
R. 1998.
The variance of the residual and the goodness of fit are given below:
(9) S=
8409,733584
(10) R=
92,62713729
The reader should be warned nevertheless, that a high goodness of fit of
a forecasting model, for a particular short time interval, as the above, is not
adequate for a repetitive, trading based
on it and for a long time (years). For a model to be used for repetitive
trading and for a long time (years), it should be tested that for the goodness
of fit at repetitive forecasting does remains high for long times intervals,
that must me at least 2 to 5 years, but even better 2025 years.
In figure 2 we have an superimposed form the general index and the
estimated “normal” curve for the
seasonal horizon of 60 days .
In table 1 they are given the
numerical data of the chart .As soon as we have estimated the model by
continuing it in a resaonable forward horizon we have an effective forecasting
.The forecasting is corrected at best every day so that the buing or selling
signals are with minimum time delay .
We have used data of closing daily prices and not intraday data .
The Bayes nested estimation can be extended for shorter horizons and the
exponent becames a polynomial of
order higher than the quadratic .
Figure 2
Table 1
Date

General Index

Normal Smoothing

Date

General Index

Normal Smoothing

10.03.1998

1542,017

1517,54

24.04.1998

2437,958

2473,98

11.03.1998

1577,069

1531,26

27.04.1998

2456,469

2300,71

12.03.1998

1612,116

1543,62

28.04.1998

2473,89

2445,80

13.03.1998

1647,124

1537,37

29.04.1998

2490,196

2511,56

16.03.1998

1682,055

1649,69

30.04.1998

2505,364

2621,44

17.03.1998

1716,873

1737,37

04.05.1998

2519,372

2602,82

18.03.1998

1751,541

1754,93

05.05.1998

2532,2

2634,54

19.03.1998

1786,021

1861,73

06.05.1998

2543,827

2582,62

20.03.1998

1820,275

1919,91

07.05.1998

2554,239

2509,78

23.03.1998

1854,263

1950,75

08.05.1998

2563,418

2450,16

24.03.1998

1887,948

1922,86

11.05.1998

2571,351

2358,15

26.03.1998

1921,289

1992,81

12.05.1998

2578,028

2438,39

27.03.1998

1954,248

2063,32

13.05.1998

2583,437

2494,66

30.03.1998

1986,784

2083,89

14.05.1998

2587,571

2494,70

31.03.1998

2018,857

2005,80

15.05.1998

2590,423

2469,84

01.04.1998

2050,429

1988,78

18.05.1998

2591,99

2500,44

02.04.1998

2081,46

1995,00

19.05.1998

2592,269

2493,70

03.04.1998

2111,91

2063,50

20.05.1998

2591,259

2547,01

06.04.1998

2141,741

2135,31

21.05.1998

2588,963

2573,98

07.04.1998

2170,914

2129,08

22.05.1998

2585,383

2606,48

08.04.1998

2199,391

2124,76

25.05.1998

2580,525

2669,76

09.04.1998

2227,134

2157,39

26.05.1998

2574,396

2621,33

10.04.1998

2254,106

2158,12

27.05.1998

2567,005

2523,03

13.04.1998

2280,27

2255,81

28.05.1998

2558,364

2549,07

14.04.1998

2305,593

2266,35

29.05.1998

2548,484

2591,03

15.04.1998

2330,037

2339,28

01.06.1998

2537,381

2536,09

16.04.1998

2353,571

2448,55

02.06.1998

2525,071

2551,47

21.04.1998

2376,161

2627,90

03.06.1998

2511,571

2581,24

22.04.1998

2397,776

2623,39

04.06.1998

2496,903

2567,21

23.04.1998

2418,384

2618,65

05.06.1998

2481,086

2562,82

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